IP Address: What is IP Address?
When a device comes in the network, it needs IP (Internet Protocol) address to communicate with the other networking devices. 32 bit & 128 Bit logical address is used to create the network. An IP address is used to communicate with different networking devices. IP is a unique address. It is a number assigned to any device operating on an IP network. For example: Computer, Router, and Internet Fax Machines. The main purpose of using IP is that it gives a unique identification on the network.For Example, IP address 11000000.10000000.00000011.00010000 but we denote it Decimal No. system we assign IP to the network card instead computer (improve). It used the IP addresses range from 0 to 255.

What are the Categories of IP addresses?
There are two categories of IP addresses we use:-1. Dynamic IP (Internet Protocol)2. Static IP (Internet Protocol)
Dynamic IP is assigned to the computer in temporary manner to connect with the network. The most common protocol assigned to the dynamic IP in the network system is DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). This Protocol assigns IP address on Leased time.
Static IP is assigned manually to the system to connect through the networking devices. In this IP addressing protocol, there is no need for leased time. These IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses that remain allocated to a specific device for a longer time.
What are the classes of IP Address?

There are many classes in IP address:-In every class there is a range defined for Public & Private addressing. Public IP are those IP address which is used at global level & Private IP are those IP address which is used in a small organization or for the private sector.1.      

 Class A (0-127)It consists of an 8-bit network ID and 24-bit Host ID. In this class, we use 2^24 -2 No. of Host (IP) address available to assign to the devices except two IP addresses reserved in each Network. In every Network two IP address is used for Network & Broadcast Address. Class A provides 16,777,216 host address.
In this class, the first octet defines the network & rest three octets define the Host. IP) Rest Network IP is PublicEx: –… Etc.

2.       Class B (128-191)
It consists of a 16-bit network ID and a 16-bit Host ID. In this class, we use 2^16-2 number of host (IP) addresses available to assign to the devices. In this class, 16,384 network blocks are created where two of the IP is used for network & broadcast. Here, we use first two octets for Network & rest octets are used for Host.16- -16- (used for private IP) Ex:


3.    Class C (192-223)
It consists of 24-bit for network ID and 8-bit for the Host ID. In this class, we use 2^8-2 number of host (IP) addresses available to assign to the devices. In this, 2,097,152 network block. (used for Private IP addressing)

4.   Class D(224-239)
Class D IP address is used for multi-casting. Each address in this class defines a particular group of hosts over the internet. In Class D IP addressing consists of only one block of address. The first byte of class D specifies decimal values from 224 to239.
5.   Class E(240-255)
Class E IP is used for a special purpose.Class E IP address consists of first-bit value 1 in the first byte second-bit value 1 in the second byte, third-bit value 1 in the third byte and fourth-bit value 1 in the fourth byte. Class E IP range has been spotted between 240 to 255.
 What are Uni-cast addresses? Uni-cast communication between one-to-one. When a packet is sent to the destination address to the single host is called Uni-cast. Every host which present on the internet has at least one unique IP address. These addresses belong to Class-A, Class-B, Class-C.For example :-
What are Multicast Addresses?
The word multicast means “One too many”. Whenever we were talking about multicast address means that one too much communication takes place. Multicast belongs to class to class D address. In Multicast a group has been defined. For example:- If a system has 4 multicast IP address then it belongs to 4 different groups.
Multicasting on the internet is of two types:-
At the local level, hosts on LAN can form a group and can be assigned a multicast address
2.Global level
Hosts on different networks can form a group and can be assigned a multicast address.


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